Introduction. At the end of 2022, the academic and pedagogical community around the world was concerned about the launch of ChatGPT, a chatbot with artificial intelligence and extensive automatic text generation capabilities, which were instantly and effectively tested by individual students, but for not the noblest purposes. Along with the concern, an understanding appeared that the matter of the pedagogical capabilities of ChatGPT for the development of cognitive activity of students is extremely relevant and requires careful study, and the use of artificial intelligence in education opens up many prospects. Aim. To investigate the pedagogical opportunities of neural networks, exemplified by ChatGPT, for the development of cognitive activity of higher education students. Methods. Theoretical sociological methods (analysis, synthesis, generalisation, induction, and deduction) and general scientific methods of empirical research (pedagogical observation, description, survey). Results. The research provides a definition of the concept “cognitive activity.” Pedagogical opportunities of using ChatGPT for cognitive activity development are identified, especially those related to information search, perception, and processing: fostering critical thinking, creativity, cognitive interest, motivation to learn, reflexivity, and skills development related to individual disciplines. The advantages and disadvantages of using ChatGPT in the educational process are studied. Scientific novelty. At present, numerous studies focus on the application of neural networks in various fields, yet the use of such networks in education is a relatively new direction. This work aims to identify new approaches to teaching and fostering cognitive activity of students, ultimately enhancing the effectiveness of education. Practical significance. The investigation of the pedagogical potential of ChatGPT for the development of cognitive activity in students has practical significance for refining teaching and education methods, devising new educational models, and improving the quality of education and cognitive skills development of students. The research findings can be utilised by educators, curriculum designers, and technology developers to enhance existing teaching methods, create new ones, and broaden the boundaries of knowledge. Furthermore, the research results can be applied to the development of intellectual systems.
Introduction. Over the past decade, there has been a steady increase in state and public attention to the problems of professional orientation in Russia. The specifics of career guidance work with children and youth require the allocation of a new distinct area of career guidance, educational career guidance, which differs in its goals, content, principles, forms, and methods from other areas such as advisory and influencing career guidance. Aim. To present a brief systematic description of educational career guidance as one of the modern paradigms of career guidance work. Methods. The author’s ten-year research work in this field was based on a wide range of theoretical and empirical methods, including conceptualisation, large-scale experimental work in various regions of the Russian Federation, pedagogical forecasting. Results. A holistic scientific concept of educational career guidance as a distinct professional orientation paradigm has been formed. A scientific description of the goals and results, principles, and tools of educational career guidance is presented. Scientific novelty. The differentiation of educational career guidance relative to other professional orientation paradigms—advisory and influencing—is substantiated. Deep interrelation of educational career guidance with the idea of lifelong learning is shown. Practical significance. A complex of effective forms and methods of educational career guidance has been formed. Innovative regional models ensuring effectiveness of the support of the professional self-determination of children and youth are presented. An approach to solving the personnel problem in educational career guidance is outlined.
Introduction. High school students are expected to define themselves in terms of vocational preference. Having estimated their readiness for self-determination, it is possible to allocate different groups, with specific psychological and pedagogical support for each group. Aim. To identify differences in readiness for professional self-determination between finalists of professionally-oriented contests and their peers not participating in analogous events. Methods. Quantitative data analysis on the basis of the test kit “Professional readiness” (or “How I Choose a Profession”) developed by the team of researchers of the Center for Testing and Development “Humanitarian Technologies” was applied. Results. The level of psychological readiness for professional self-determination among adolescents-finalists of the WorldSkills contests of professional competence and among the adolescents-finalists of The National Technology Initiative Contest by many indicators is higher compared to their peers, students of 8–11th grades of secondary school, who did not participate in these contests. Scientific novelty. The adolescents, finalists of professionally-oriented contests, compared with their peers who did not take part in such competitions have higher scores on self-esteem and independence scales; they know more about professions and the Russian education system; they have fewer stereotypes and misconceptions about choosing a profession; they took more steps towards professional self-determination. Practical significance. The results of the study can be applied by psychologists, class teachers, tutors, teachers of additional education in career guidance, consulting and educational work with schoolchildren and their parents.
Introduction. At present, research-based learning is one of the most popular contemporary training methods for secondary vocational education teachers. The paper shows the possibility of using one of these technologies, namely corpus-based learning, for the formation of professionally significant competencies. Aim. To describe the technology of using corpus data to train documentary linguistics students. Methods. The analysis of regulatory and legal documentation, as well as educational and methodological literature was carried out. The tools of corpus linguistics were used as teaching tools, namely: distributive analysis for characterizing the combinability of words, quantitative analysis for determining the frequency of words and phrases in general and in a particular type of texts. In addition, a content analysis of students’ research works was carried out. Results. The article provides evidence of the effectiveness of corpus-based learning for the formation of students’ research and language competencies. This technology also allows one to expand the repertoire of students’ skills and knowledge, and stimulate intra-activity motivation of learning. Scientific novelty. The article is the first one to describe the technology of applying methods of corpus linguistics to teaching documentary linguistics, and even to form communicative competence among documentary linguistics students — future teachers of the secondary vocational education system. Practical significance. The results of the study can be used to train vocational education teachers and to teach documentary linguistics.
Introduction. The relevance of the study is connected to the decrease in the motivation of MA students majoring in Economics to improve professionally oriented foreign language communicative competence in a situation of limited international cooperation. The motivation in this case can be stimulated by engaging in research activities, where success is largely due to knowledge of foreign languages. Aim. To analyse the results of the implementation of the research article writing technology in the educational process and to reveal its potential in increasing the motivation of MA students to learn a professional foreign language. Methods. Questionnaires, interviews, a survey, and analytical method, as well as elementary statistical methods of processing the data obtained were used. First year MA students of the Ural State University of Economics (60 participants) took part in the survey. Results. Only one third of the respondents consider English to be an important factor, contributing to their professional development. When assessing the implementation of the educational technology “research article writing” in the learning process, the absolute majority of the respondents recognised this experience as useful because of the possibility to consider issues of their professional interest by means of a foreign language. Scientific novelty. The potential of writing a scientific article as a motivation for students to learn foreign languages in conditions of limited international cooperation is demonstrated. Practical significance. The results obtained provide a strategy for increasing the motivation of MA students to learn a professional foreign language.
Introduction. The demand for graduates in the labour market is one of the important criteria for the social well-being of young people, as well as assessing the quality of educational services provided by an educational institution. Due to the digitalization of socio-economic processes, employers have to adjust the requirements for graduates, thus updating the issues of practical training of IT-specialists. Changing demands of the labour market should provide a basis for the transformation of educational programs in the context of practice-oriented learning model. Aim. To present a model for assessing the practice orientation of the main educational programmes of secondary vocational education, taking into account changes in the labour market and employers’ requirements for graduates. Methods. Bibliographic analysis of scientific publications on the research topic, analysis of the data from the websites of online recruiting services, analysis of existing educational programmes for training IT specialists. Results. A model of criteria for assessing the practical orientation of the main vocational educational programmes for training IT specialists was formulated. The issues of the continuity of educational programmes in the systems of secondary vocational education and higher education are considered. Scientific novelty. The multifactorial nature of the presented model for assessing the practical orientation of educational programmes allows for consideration of the changes in the requirements of the labour market. Practical significance. A model proposed to assess the practical orientation of basic professional educational programs is available for external evaluation of the quality of graduates’ training, as well as for self-evaluation of educational institutions.
Introduction. The study of the relationship between cognitive and personal prerequisites that determine the success of the educational activities of students-preventologists becomes more and more relevant due to digitalisation, the need to transform education, and the transition to innovative learning models. The problem of determining learning and the factors that determine its success is one of the classic problems for any level of education. The discovery of effective learning strategies for students is relevant for substantiating further models of the educational process. Aim. To study the relationship between cognitive and personal prerequisites that determine the success of the educational activities of students-preventologists. Methods. The results of an empirical study (2021) are presented. The sample consisted of 74 people, mainly MA students from the department of “Organization of work with youth”, Ural Federal University. Among the methods used were Myers–Briggs Type Indicator, adapted by E. F.Abelskaya, Wonderlic Personnel Test–Quicktest (WPT–Q), and the Universal Intellectual Test (UIT SCH-M). The data obtained were processed using the method of mathematical statistics (Spearman correlation analysis, analysis of variance). Results. The progress of students-preventologists depends on a number of intellectual characteristics and is determined by certain personality traits that are typical for specialists in helping professions. The student’s personality type is a mediating link to their success: the most successful in learning are such psychotypes as Initiator, Intermediary, Keeper, Politician, Humanist, Mentor, and Enthusiast. Scientific novelty. The progress of students is due to a number of intellectual characteristics and is only indirectly determined by personality traits. It has been established that people of each personality type in the educational process chooses their own strategy for solving problems in connection with their intellectual characteristics, which indicates the presence of specific strategies for achieving success in learning. Practical significance. The results of the study provide an opportunity to personalize recommendations for improving the success of academic activities of students, considering the personality type.
Introduction. Due to the increasing intensity of teachers’ work, it is advisable to pay special attention to traumatic psycho-emotional consequences, which include emotional burnout that has a noticeable negative impact on the health of the individual. Aim. To identify the possible impact of the emotional burnout syndrome on the overall well-being of secondary school teachers. Methods. The study is based on the results of the testing conducted according to the techniques “Burnout Questionnaire (MMI)” and “Index of general (good) well-being” (WHO5, Well-Being Index, WHO). Statistical analysis (SPSS Statistics version 22) and Spearman's nonparametric correlation method were used to interpret the test results. Results. A moderate direct relationship between emotional burnout and the general well-being of the individual was revealed. It is noted that emotional burnout affects the overall well-being of teachers, the consequences of which are deterioration of the general well-being, decreased activity, increased anxiety, emotional exhaustion. Scientific novelty. Possible impact of emotional burnout on the general well-being of an individual was studied in the context of emotional and physical well-being of a modern secondary school teacher. Practical significance. The obtained results can be used in the development of programmes for the prevention and correction of the consequences of emotional burnout of teachers.